Dr. Jayfus T. Doswell
President/CEO, Juxtopia, LLC (www.juxtopia.com)
Chairperson, The Juxtopia Group, Inc. (www.juxtopia.org)
Dr. Jayfus Tucker Doswell earned a Bachelor’s of Arts (BA) from Oberlin College with degrees in Cognitive Neuro-Psychology and Computer Science; a Master’s degree in Systems and Computer Science from Howard University; and a Ph.D. degree in Information Technology from George Mason University. His 2005 defended Ph.D. research, “Building The Virtual Instructor: An Architecture For Developing Pedagogical Embodied Conversational Agents For Mixed Reality Environments”, defined the world’s 1st detailed software system platform for building artificially intelligent virtual instructors with capabilities to autonomously instruct humans in mixed reality (i.e., virtual reality, augmented reality, real-world) environment.
Dr. Doswell is the founder, president, and chief executive officer (CEO) of Juxtopia, LLC, (www.juxtopia.com) a privately held for-profit biomedical and information technology company with a mission for improving human performance®. Prior to starting Juxtopia in 2001, Dr. Doswell lead several commercial engineering teams at fortune 500 companies ranging from Lockheed Martin and SAIC to BearingPoint. Dr. Doswell has also successfully lead Juxtopia to secure research and development (R&D) funding for the development of Juxtopia® wearable technology products.
From 2005 to 2012, with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Phase I and II Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) awards, the Juxtopia® Context-Aware Augmented Reality System (CAARS) platform was created for improving human performance® using wearable AR. The NSF STTR research resulted in an interoperable and extensible CAARS hardware and software platform from which various AR head mounted displays (HMD) and/or interoperable software systems may be created and continuously improved. Built upon the CAARS platform, Dr. Doswell led Juxtopia to build the Context-Aware Mobile Mixed Reality Assistive Device (CAMMRAD), as a wearable augmented reality (AR) platform from which AR hardware and software systems may be created for improving human performance® while humans work in austere and extreme environments. From the Juxtopia® CAARS and CAMMRAD platforms, Juxtopia conducted research investigating how wearable augmented reality improves human performance in austere environments ranging from combat medic and surgery to military aircraft maintenance to space.
2.5.1. Juxtopia® CAMMRAD and HBCUs
Juxtopia secured a Maryland TEDCO Maryland Research and Applied Sciences Consortium (MRASC) and Applied Research and Development Project (ARDP) grant to collaborate with a team of three Historical Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions to investigate how wearable AR may be utilized to advance United States combat medics and first responder performance. Under the TEDCO MRASC grant, Juxtopia collaborated with Morgan State University (MSU) to build upon the CAARS Platform and develop a small, light-weight, and hybrid optical see-through AR and Virtual Reality (VR) Goggle system for combat medics. Together, Juxtopia and MSU managed the HBCU and MSI team including Bowie State University (BSU), Coppin State University (CSU), and Sojourner Douglass College (SDC). The Juxtopia® CAARS platform was followed as an engineering schematic to engineer a prototype of the Context-Aware Mobile Mixed Reality Assistive Device (CAMMRAD) at TRL6. The resulting CAMMRAD prototype was demonstrated to provide the combat medic with an intuitive and self-contained medical assistive device for use in both combat medical training and field use. At the end of the research effort, the research team completed the following CAMMRAD HMD subsystems each at TRL6:
To evaluate the effectiveness of the CAMMRAD intervention to improve a medic’s capability to administer medical care accuracy within the “golden hour”, Dr. Wilson (a resource on this effort) organized a small pilot randomized controlled study of first and second year medical school students wearing (experimental group) and not wearing (control group) the Juxtopia® CAARS Goggles to perform a needle decompression procedure on cadavers at Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM). The result of this study showed that the experimental group (i.e., Goggle wearers) took less time and completed more needle decompression tasks more accurately than the control group. Additionally, the study results showed significant improvement over traditional methods of how wearable AR based medical assistance and training can improve proficiency on trauma procedures with a focus on how to perform a needle decompression procedure.
2.5.2. Speech Signal Enhancement
To eliminate noise from a speech signal and improve the speech recognition capabilities of Juxtopia’s CAMMRAD Software’s Conversation Service, Juxtopia secured a Maryland Industrial Partnerships (MIPS) grant to collaborate with the University of Maryland College Park’s Electrical & Computer Engineering Department and the Institute for Systems Research. The specific aim of the project was for Juxtopia to develop a speech enhancement/noise reduction software product to eliminate battlefield noise from a speech signal (e.g., gun shots, MEDIVAC, shouting, etc.) when the combat medic voice controls the CAARS generated Goggles in both training and theater environments. The research resulted in a refined single channel speech enhancement algorithm to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of speech signals that are corrupted by “noise” (i.e., echo & background noise). A key feature of the speech enhancement software algorithm is that it needs no estimate of the noise. The resulting software algorithm demonstrated superior performance over other speech enhancement schemes under fluctuating noisy conditions, and has the potential of decreasing computer speech recognition errors in both real and training battlefield environments.
2.5.3. Juxtopia® Advanced Optical See-Through Head Mounted Display for Mobile Augmented Reality
To advance the optical see-through display subsystem for wearable AR HMDs, Juxtopia secured a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant and collaborated with HBCU Delaware State University (DSU) and its Center for Research and Education in Optical Sciences and Applications (CREOSA). During this research effort, Juxtopia and DSU-CREOSA collaborated to develop an advanced optical see-through subsystem that led to the innovative manufacturing of lighter weight, better ergonomically engineered, and smaller wearable AR HMD products across several wearable AR markets. The goal of the research was to address known optical see-through HMD challenges, including accurately overlaying digital data (e.g., text and graphics) on real-world objects; designing a wider field-of-view (FOV); designing a compact and non-intrusive HMD; reducing display distortion; improving brightness and contrast; and reducing image occlusion. Research results generated an accommodation-free (i.e., large depth of focus) and virtual display of the information independent of the distance on which the user’s eyes are focused.
|Figure 5. WINSS Pilot Study at JHU|
To investigate how to improve the performance of a neurosurgeon performing a tumor resection procedure, Juxtopia and the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Center for Computer-Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology (CISST) secured a collaborative NSF grant in 2010 to advance Juxtopia’s CAARS Goggles Platform with capabilities of fusing medical images from several commercial off the shelf (COTS) medical systems (used during surgery) and redisplaying images on the Juxtopia® CAARS optical see-through display. The resulting wearable intelligent navigation system for surgery (WINSS) was prototyped to enable a neurosurgeon, wearing the Juxtopia CAARS goggles, to voice activate/deactivate and navigate various medical images that assist surgical procedures while keeping hands and eyes focused on the patient. As illustrated in the figure, above, the early WINSS prototype was clunky and uncomfortable to wear. Nevertheless, the research team performed several experiments to demonstrate that the WINSS enabled faster and more accurate resection of simulated brain tumors, as compared to the conventional image-guided surgery setup with an external tracking system and display. It is also important to note that this system did not attempt to overlay the tumor outline in the correct location in the field of view, but rather employed a “picture-in-picture” virtual view that showed the position and orientation of a tracked surgical instrument (bipolar forceps) with respect to the tumor model. This was done to avoid the difficulties in compensating for time lag and in maintaining proper calibration of the goggles with respect to the surgeon’s eyes.
2.5.5. CAARS-First Responder
Beginning in 2008, Juxtopia started conducting preliminary research on generating a wearable AR first responder system from the Juxtopia® CAARS platform to equip medical first responders (e.g., emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics) with situational awareness capabilities to effectively respond to the trauma care needs during an incident response. Because of its research in this area, Juxtopia competed and elevated through various levels in the American Security Challenge. Juxtopia also secured a National Institutes of Health SBIR to advance Fire Fighter EMT training using the Juxtopia® wearable AR system.
Starting in 2005, Juxtopia developed a workflow authoring tool, CAARS Workflow Authoring System (CAARSWART), with capabilities to store a set of procedures along with their corresponding steps and instructional aids (e.g., graphics, video, etc.) on the Juxtopia® AR Goggles. Using the Internet accessible CAARSWART, a set of workflows including a set of tasks may be created and remotely retrieved, on-demand, to complete a procedure.
2.5.7. CAMMRAD Space
In late 2014, Juxtopia secured a grant from the Center for Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) to outfit astronauts, onboard the International Space Station (ISS), with Juxtopia® wearable augmented reality goggles to assist astronauts perform complex tasks in austere and extreme environment. As part of the grant, Juxtopia is also charged with improving human performance® of individuals performing tasks in austere and extreme environments on Earth with Juxtopia® AR Goggles.
In 2000, Dr. Doswell created The Juxtopia Group, Inc. (www.juxtopia.org) to address the shortage of underrepresented minority populations in engineering and technology careers.
Dr. Doswell, observing the painful problems that prevent high-tech minority companies to achieve high growth markets, Dr. Doswell created the Juxtopia® Urban Innovation and Cooperative Entrepreneurship (JUICE) Network. The JUICE Network guides high-tech minority companies, colleges and universities, and federal labs to transition their inventions or innovative concepts to commercial products. In the JUICE Network, Dr. Doswell helped to create and is Vice President of Phezu Space, the first African American commercial space company focused on space asset (e.g., Satellite) servicing. Dr. Doswell’s JUICE Network has also created several companies ranging from telemedicine and biomedical device companies to smart-home companies. To accelerate space commercialization for minority entrepreneurs, Juxtopia secured an unprecedented Space Act Agreement with NASA Goddard to expose small minority businesses to NASA Goddard’s technology, scientist, and facilities towards space product commercialization. Most recently, the JUICE Network created the first company from Historically Black College and University (HBCU), Morgan State University (MSU), iCrystal, to help commercialize MSU’s 1st patent in 148 years. Additionally, the JUICE Network helped MSU secure its first National Institutes of Health (NIH) Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) grant to provide “seed” funding to complete the product engineering for the iCrystal innovation. The JUICE Network accomplished this within the 1st quarter of 2015.
To improve the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) proficiency among underrepresented minorities, Dr. Doswell created student run JUICE Clubs and Chapters so that senior Juxtopia® Mentors may train minority students in engineering and entrepreneurship ranging from middle school to college age students.
To help eradicate the negative and social stereotypes that “de-motivate” minority youth towards STEM majors and careers, The Juxtopia Group, Inc. was awarded a National Science Foundation grant to create an online TV network, Juxtopia® Urban Learning Technology Television (JULT.tv), in 2010, that has produced mini-series and public service announcements focused on the broadcasting the STEM achievements of underserved and disadvantaged minority students.
To further engage underrepresented minority students in STEM problem solving, The Juxtopia Group empaneled students to compete in world high-tech challenges including the Google Lunar X PRIZE (2008-2012); Qualcomm Tricorder X PRIZE (2012-2015); and the Global Learning X PRIZE (2015-current).
Dr. Doswell sits on several not for profit boards and is an active member of the American Public Health Association (APHA) Health Informatics and Information Technology (HIIT) Section, American Telemedicine Association (ATA), Association of Computing Machinery (ACM), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE). Dr. Doswell also sits on external advisory committees at colleges/universities across the United States.